Devices and methods for utilization of intermittently available

Heat exchange – With timer – programmer – time delay – or condition responsive... – Having heating and cooling capability


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126620, 126633, 165 481, 165 482, 165 97, 523024, 523023, 524051, 392343, 392346, F25B 2900




Low-cost off-peak electric energy or electric energy from natural energy sources is used for heating of cooling of system air, which is moved in a closed circuit to heat or cool the energy storage medium of permeable concrete and sized gravel in the exterior walls of the structures. The heated or cooled system air is pressurized by a blower, and is moved horizontally outward through the energy storage medium, to store energy therein, as heat or cold. When stored heat or cold is required inside the structure, system air is moved horizontally, inward, through the energy storage medium, and is heated or cooled thereby, thus moving heat or cold to the material forming the interior surfaces of the exterior walls. Those surfaces then provide radiant heat transfer and convection heat transfer, with materials of the interiors of the structure, and with contents and occupants thereof. The energy storage walls are constructed of large energy storage blocks, lapped for added strength. The energy storage blocks are made of permeable concrete using the standard three-block concrete block producing machines and special block molds. Manifold tubes incased in cap beams on top of the walls distribute system air uniformly to block walls, and return it in closed circuit. Heating and cooling of the energy storage medium is completed during several hours each day, at times selected either by users, or by the utility electric company. The passive flywheel effects are inherent, and the "enhanced flywheel effects" are introduced. Many electric utility companies provide low-cost time-of-use rates, which reduces costs.

patent: 4006856 (1977-02-01), Nilsson
patent: 4250885 (1981-02-01), Van Heel
patent: 4286420 (1981-09-01), Pharmakidis
patent: 4295415 (1981-10-01), Schneider, Jr.
patent: 4304219 (1981-12-01), Currie
patent: 4393861 (1983-07-01), Beard et al.
patent: 4526225 (1985-07-01), Stanton
patent: 5121789 (1992-06-01), Scharfe


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