Drug – bio-affecting and body treating compositions – Designated organic active ingredient containing – Peptide containing doai
C514S004300, C514S008100, C530S350000, C530S351000, C435S069100, C435S069800, C435S356000, C435S358000, C435S361000, C435S252330, C435S254200
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Interleukins-1 are a class of proteins produced by numerous cell-types, including monocytes and some macrophages. This class includes at least two 17-18 kilodalton proteins known as interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These proteins have important physiological effects on a number of different target cells involved in the inflammatory and immune responses. The proteins are co-mitogens (with phytohemaglutinin) for T-cells, cause both fibroblasts and chondrocytes to secrete latent collagenase, and increase the surface adhesive powers of endothelial cells for neutrophils. In addition, they act on the hypothalamus as pyrogens, they stimulate the catabolism of muscle protein, and they cause hepatocytes to synthesize a class of proteins known as “acute phase reactants.” Thus, interleukins-1 (IL-1) are obviously an important part of an organism's response to infection and injury.
B. Pathological Roles of IL-1
However, despite their normally beneficial effects, circumstances have come to light in which the actions of IL-1 are harmful. For example, IL-1 may increase the level of collagenase in an arthritic joint and has been implicated as a mediator of both the acute and chronic stages of immunopathology in rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 may be responsible for altering endothelial cell function, directing the chemotaxis and migration of leukocytes and lymphocytes into the synovial tissue, inducing capillary proliferation, and stimulating macrophage accumulation in the synovial lining during the acute phase of this disease. In the phase of tissue destruction, IL-1 has been implicated as a mediator in induction of tissue damage through stimulating release of enzymes from fibroblasts and chondrocytes.
In addition, excessive IL-1 production has been demonstrated in the skin of patients with psoriasis and high levels of IL-1 can be found in the synovial fluid of patients with psoriatic arthritis. IL-1 released by cells in the inflamed synovium in psoriatic arthritis may mediate tissue destruction through stimulation of enzyme release from other cells. The joint pathology of Reiter's syndrome is similar to that seen in psoriatic arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 has been implicated as a mediator of tissue destruction in these three different forms of inflammatory arthritis. Moreover, IL-1 may be found in the synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis. The release of IL-1 by chondrocytes has been implicated in the destruction of articular cartilage in this disease.
IL-1 may also increase the severity of autoimmune diseases. For example, decreased IL-1 production has been described from peripheral blood cells in persons suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus. Moreover, some of the alterations in B lymphocyte function may be related to abnormalities in IL-1 production or IL-1 availability.
Excessive IL-1 production has been demonstrated in the peripheral monocytes of patients with scleroderma, and IL-1 has been implicated as a possible agent of fibrosis through stimulation of collagen production by fibroblasts. The mechanism of tissue damage in dermatomyositis might also involve cell-mediated immunity and IL-1 may therefore be involved as a mediator in this pathophysiological process.
Acute and chronic interstitial lung disease is characterized by excessive collagen production by lung fibroblasts which may be stimulated by IL-1. Recent studies on an animal model of pulmonary hypertension indicate that IL-1 may be responsible for induction of endothelial cell changes that result in narrowing of pulmonary arteries. It is this narrowing that leads to pulmonary hypertension and further secondary damage. Thus, IL-1 inhibitors could be useful in treating these lung diseases.
Recent studies have described that IL-1 is capable of directly damaging the beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans that are responsible for the production of insulin. IL-1 damage to the cells is now hypothesized to be a primary event in the acute phase of juvenile diabetes mellitus.
Monocyte and macrophage infiltration in the kidneys predominates in many forms of acute and chronic glomerulonephritis. IL-1 release by these cells may result in local accumulation of other inflammatory cells, eventually leading to inflammatory damage and fibrotic reaction in the kidneys.
It has been demonstrated that the crystals found in tissues or fluids in gout or pseudogout can directly stimulate macrophages to release IL-1. Thus, IL-1 may be an important mediator in the inflammatory cycle in these diseases.
IL-1 is capable of inducing loss of calcium from bones and may be responsible for the osteoporosis that is seen in inflammatory joint diseases.
Keratinocytes from patients with psoriasis release large amounts of IL-1. This mediator may be responsible for the secondary cell proliferation and accumulation which occurs in the skin in patients with this disease.
IL-1 is one of the important endocenous pyrogens and may be responsible for inducing the marked decree of fever seen in some infectious diseases such as acute febrile illnesses due to bacteria or viruses.
Sarcoidosis is characterized by granulomatous lesions in many different organs in the body. IL-1 has been shown to be capable of inducing granuloma formation in vitro and may be involved in this process in patients with sarcoidosis.
Excessive IL-1 production has been demonstrated in peripheral monocytes from both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Local IL-1 release in the intestine may be an important mediator in stimulating the inflammatory cycle in these diseases.
Certain lymphomas are characterized by fever, osteoporosis and even secondary arthritis. Excessive IL-1 release has been demonstrated by some lymphoma cells in vitro and may be responsible for some of the clinical manifestations of these malignancies. Also, IL-1 production by some malignant lymphocytes may be responsible for some of the fever, acute phase response and cachexia seen with leukemias.
IL-1 release by astrocytes in the brain is thought to be responsible for inducing the fibrosis that may result after damage to the brain from vascular occlusion.
C. Uses for an IL-1 Inhibitor
In these and other circumstances in which IL-1 has a harmful effect, there is clearly a clinical use for an inhibitor of IL-1 action. As IL-1 is a co-mitogen for T-cells, it is central to the development of autoimmune and other immune diseases. Thus, systemically administered, IL-1 inhibitors could be useful immunosuppressive agents. Locally applied, such IL-1 inhibitors could serve to prevent tissue destruction in an inflamed joint and other sites of inflammation. Indeed, to prevent tissue destruction some IL-1 inhibitors could be even more effective when administered in conjunction with collagenase inhibitors.
Therapeutic intervention against the action of IL-1 might be possible at the level of synthesis, secretion, or the target cell's binding or response to the protein. IL-1 is synthesized by monocyte/macrophages and other cells in response to lipopolysaccharides, complement fragments and viruses. Any molecule that blocks binding of these inducing agents to producer cells or which interferes with their effects on the physiology of these cells would serve as a regulator of IL-1 action. IL-1 is not secreted by a traditional secretion system since mRNAs have been isolated that code for at least two 30 kd precursors of the proteins but which do not contain a hydrophobic signal sequence. Release of the active protein from the inactive precursor probably requires proteolysis of that precursor. An inhibitor of the release of IL-1 or IL-ls from their precursors could theoretically regulate IL-1 action. IL-1 probably acts on target cells through a classical receptor-mediated pathway, although that receptor has not yet been isolated. Thus, it could be that a molecule that interferes with IL-1 binding to its receptors, or down-regulates these receptors, could also regulate IL-1 action. Moreover, although the intracellular events following receptor binding of IL-1 are
Arend William P.
Eisenburg Stephen P.
Hannum Charles H.
Joslin Fenneke G.
Finnegan Henderson Farabow Garrett & Dunner LLP
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