O- or S- substituted tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives...

Organic compounds -- part of the class 532-570 series – Organic compounds – Heterocyclic carbon compounds containing a hetero ring...

Reexamination Certificate

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C560S056000, C562S427000, C562S462000, C562S466000

Reexamination Certificate

active

06187933

ABSTRACT:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to novel compounds having retinoid and/or retinoid antagonist-like biological activity. More specifically, the present invention relates to O- or S-substituted tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives which bind to retinoid receptors and have retinoid-like or retinoid antagonist-like biological activity.
BACKGROUND ART
Compounds which have retinoid-like activity are well known in the art, and are described in numerous United States and other patents and in scientific publications. It is generally known and accepted in the art that retinoid-like activity is useful for treating animals of the mammalian species, including humans, for curing or alleviating the symptoms and conditions of numerous diseases and conditions. In other words, it is generally accepted in the art that pharmaceutical compositions having a retinoid-like compound or compounds as the active ingredient are useful as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, and particularly as agents for treating skin-related diseases, including, actinic keratoses, arsenic keratoses, inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne, psoriasis, ichthyoses and other keratinization and hyperproliferative disorders of the skin, eczema, atopic dermatitis, Darriers disease, lichen planus, prevention and reversal of glucocorticoid damage (steroid atrophy), as a topical anti-microbial, as skin anti-pigmentation agents and to treat and reverse the effects of age and photo damage to the skin. Retinoid compounds are also useful for the prevention and treatment of cancerous and precancerous conditions, including, premalignant and malignant hyperproliferative diseases such as cancers of the breast, skin, prostate, cervix, uterus, colon, bladder, esophagus, stomach, lung, larynx, oral cavity, blood and lymphatic system, metaplasias, dysplasias, neoplasias, leukoplakias and papillomas of the mucous membranes and in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma. In addition, retinoid compounds can be used as agents to treat diseases of the eye, including, without limitation, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), retinal detachment, dry eye and other corneopathies, as well as in the treatment and prevention of various cardiovascular diseases, including, without limitation, diseases associated with lipid metabolism such as dyslipidemias, prevention of post-angioplasty restenosis and as an agent to increase the level of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). Other uses for retinoid compounds include the prevention and treatment of conditions and diseases associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), including warts and genital warts, various inflammatory diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, ileitis, colitis and Krohn's disease, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke, improper pituitary function, including insufficient production of growth hormone, modulation of apoptosis, including both the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of T-Cell activated apoptosis, restoration of hair growth, including combination therapies with the present compounds and other agents such as Minoxidil
R
, diseases associated with the immune system, including use of the present compounds as immunosuppressants and immunostimulants, modulation of organ transplant rejection and facilitation of wound healing, including modulation of chelosis.
U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,740,519 (Shroot et al.), 4,826,969 (Maignan et al.), 4,326,055 (Lozeliger et al.), 5,130,335 (Chandraratna et al.), 5,037,825 (Klaus et al.), 5,231,113 (Chandraratna et al.), 5,324,840 (Chandraratna), 5,344,959 (Chandraratna), 5,130,335 (Chandraratna et al.), Published European Patent Application Nos. 0 176 034 A (Wuest et al.), 0 350 846 A (Klaus et al.), 0 176 032 A (Frickel et al.), 0 176 033 A (Frickel et al.), 0 253 302 A (Klaus et al.), 0 303 915 A (Bryce et al.), UK Patent Application GB 2190378 A (Klaus et al.), German Patent Application Nos. DE 3715955 A1 (Klaus et al.), DE 3602473 A1 (Wuest et al., and the articles
J. Amer. Acad. Derm.
15: 756-764 (1986) (Sporn et al.),
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
33: 404-407 (1985) (Shudo et al.),
J. Med Chem.
1988 31, 2182-2192 (Kagechika et al.),
Chemistry and Biology of Synthetic Retinoids CRC Press Inc.
1990 p 334-335, 354 (Dawson et al.), describe or relate to compounds which include a tetrahydronaphthyl moiety and have retinoid-like or related biological activity. U.S. Pat. No. 4,391,731 (Boller et al.) describes tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives which are useful in liquid crystal compositions.
Published European Patent application Nos. 0 661 259 A1 and 0 661 261 A1 (Bristol-Myers Squibb) describe further dihydronaphthalene and naphthalene derivatives which are said in the disclosures to have retinoid-like biological activity.
U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,980,369, 5,006,550, 5,015,658, 5,045,551, 5,089,509, 5,134,159, 5,162,546, 5,234,926, 5,248,777, 5,264,578, 5,272,156, 5,278,318, 5,324,744, 5,346,895, 5,346,915, 5,348,972, 5,348,975, 5,380,877, 5,399,561, 5,407,937, (assigned to the same assignee as the present application) and patents and publications cited therein, describe or relate to chroman, thiochroman and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives which have retinoid-like biological activity. Still further, several co-pending applications and recently issued patents which are assigned to the assignee of the present application, are directed to further compounds having retinoid-like activity.
Although pharmaceutical compositions containing retinoids have well established utility (as is demonstrated by the foregoing citation of patents and publications from the voluminous literature devoted to this subject) retinoids also cause a number of undesired side effects at therapeutic dose levels, including headache, teratogenesis, mucocutaneous toxicity, musculoskeletal toxicity, dyslipidemias, skin irritation, headache and hepatotoxicity. These side effects limit the acceptability and utility of retinoids for treating disease.
It is now general knowledge in the art that two main types of retinoid receptors exist in mammals (and other organisms). The two main types or families of receptors respectively designated the RARs and RXRs. Within each type there are subtypes; in the RAR family the subtypes are designated RAR
&agr;
, RAR
&bgr;
and RAR
&ggr;
, in RXR the subtypes are: RXR
&agr;
, RXB
&bgr;
and RXR
&ggr;
. It has also been established in the art that the distribution of the two main retinoid receptor types, and of the several sub-types is not uniform in the various tissues and organs of mammalian organisms. Moreover, it is generally accepted in the art that many unwanted side effects of retinoids are mediated by one or more of the RAR receptor subtypes. Accordingly, among compounds having agonist-like activity at retinoid receptors, specificity or selectivity for one of the main types or families, and even specificity or selectivity for one or more subtypes within a family of receptors, is considered a desirable pharmacological property. Some compounds bind to one or more RAR receptor subtypes, but do not trigger the response which is triggered by agonists of the same receptors. A compound that binds to a biological receptor but does not trigger an agonist-like response is usually termed an antagonist. Accordingly, the “effect” of compounds on retinoid receptors may fall in the range of having no effect at all, (inactive compound, neither agonist nor antagonist), the compound may elicit an agonist-like response on all receptor subtypes (pan-agonist), or a compound may be a partial agonist and/or partial antagonist of certain receptor subtypes if the compound binds to but does not activate certain receptor subtype or subtypes but elicits an agonist-like response in other receptor subtype or subtypes. A pan antagonist is a compound that binds to all known retinoid receptors but does not elicit an agonist-like response in any of the receptors.
It has been recently discovered and described in a pending application assigned to the same assignee as the present applicati

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