Stock material or miscellaneous articles – All metal or with adjacent metals – Having composition – density – or hardness gradient
428665, 428635, 428627, 428661, 428681, 428651, 428680, 20419216, C23C 1400, C23C 1406
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a multilayer material more particularly for permitting the production of an anti-erosion and anti-abrasion coating, as well as to the process for producing this multilayer material.
The erosion of materials forming mechanical parts subject to the impact of abrasive particles such as sand or dust is a well known industrial problem, e.g. in the aeronautical field. Thus, in the case of compressor blades used in gas turbine engines for aircraft, wear by erosion to the leading edges of the blades leads to a deterioration of the performance characteristics of the engine. In the same way, turbine blades used in electrical power stations are subject to external attacks by solid, hard particles such as e.g. sand or alumina. These problems also occur in other technical fields.
The erosion rate of the materials is defined by the volume or mass of eroded material for a given mass of instant particles. This erosion rate varies with the incidence angle of the solid particles striking the surface of the material in question.
DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART
The erosion mechanisms have been studied by various authors and in particular by J. P. Massoud, "Behaviour relative to erosion by solid particles of a laser-treated T6V titanium alloy", PhD material engineering thesis, Lyon INSA, 1988. These studies have made it possible to make a distinction between two types of behaviour of materials subject to erosion. The first is a behaviour characteristic of ductile materials such as metals, which deteriorate as a result of the appearance of scratches and the removal of shavings. Their erosion rate is low with a solid particle jet with normal incidence (with respect to the material plane), but is very high at low impact angles, i.e. approximately 20.degree. to 30.degree.. There is also the characteristic behaviour of fragile materials such as glass, ceramics and hard materials (carbides), for which the energy transfer by impact leads to the appearance of cracks producing the removal of material in the form of chips and splinters. The erosion rate of these materials is low with a particle jet having a limited incidence angle (20.degree. to 30.degree.) and high with incidence angles of approximately 50.degree. to 90.degree..
These two behaviours are respectively illustrated in the attached FIGS. 1 and 2 showing the erosion rate of the tested material as a function of the incidence angle of the eroding particles.
In addition, complimentary studies carried out by T. Foley and A. Levy, "The effect of heat treatment on the erosion behaviour of steel", Proceedings of the Conference on Wear of Materials, Reston, Va., Apr. 11-14, 1983, ASME, 1983, p 346, have demonstrated that the microstructure of the material also plays an important part. For example, the erosion rate of steels under different microstructural states (e.g. XC75 steel in the form of coarse perlite, fine perlite or a globular structure or XC20 steel in its three globular forms) is directly linked with the distribution of the hard, fragile and ductile phases in the alloy, whereas the hardness of these steels only varies slightly with the state of the microstructure.
In addition, the erosion also varies as a function of the shape, size and distribution of the precipitates covering a substrate. G. Hickey, D. Boone, A. Levy and J. Stiglich, "Erosion of conventional and ultrafine-grained materials", Thin Solid Films, 118,321, 1984, have demonstrated that fine SiC precipitates on steel had a better erosion resistance than a coarse precipitate.
Finally, the erosion rate is dependent on a certain number of parameters linked with the nature of the eroding agent (size and shape of the eroding particles, their hardness and their fragility), as well as the testing conditions, i.e. the speed of the eroding particles and their angle of incidence.
Consequently, the above studies and research show that numerous parameters can occur and influence the erosion phenomena and sometimes it is difficult to appropriately compare the behav
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Commissariat a l''Energie Atomique
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