Azolo triazines and pyrimidines

Drug – bio-affecting and body treating compositions – Designated organic active ingredient containing – Heterocyclic carbon compounds containing a hetero ring...

Reexamination Certificate

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C544S180000, C544S211000, C544S212000

Reexamination Certificate

active

06358950

ABSTRACT:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates a treatment of psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases including major depression, anxiety-related disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, supranuclear palsy and feeding disorders as well as treatment of immunological, cardiovascular or heart-related diseases and colonic hypersensitivity associated with psychopathological disturbance and stress, by administration of certain [1,5-a]-pyrazolo-1,3,5-triazines, [1,5-a]-1,2,3-triazolo-1,3,5-triazines, [1,5-a]-pyrazolo-pyrimidines and [1,5-a]-1,2,3-triazolo-pyrimidines.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Corticotropin releasing factor (herein referred to as CRF), a 41 amino acid peptide, is the primary physiological regulator of proopiomelanocortin(POMC)—derived peptide secretion from the anterior pituitary gland [J. Rivier et al.,
Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.
(
USA
) 80:4851 (1983); W. Vale et al., Science 213:1394 (1981)]. In addition to its endocrine role at the pituitary gland, immunohistochemical localization of CRF has demonstrated that the hormone has a broad extrahypothalamic distribution in the central nervous system and produces a wide spectrum of autonomic, electrophysiological and behavioral effects consistent with a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role in brain [W. Vale et al.,
Rec. Prog. Horm. Res.
39:245 (1983); G. F. Koob,
Persp. Behav. Med.
2:39 (1985); E. B. De Souza et al.,
J. Neurosci.
5:3189 (1985)]. There is also evidence that CRF plays a significant role in integrating the response of the immune system to physiological, psychological, and immunological stressors [J. E. Blalock,
Physiological Reviews
69:1 (1989); J. E. Morley,
Life Sci.
41:527 (1987)].
Clinical data provide evidence that CRF has a role in psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases including depression, anxiety-related disorders and feeding disorders. A role for CRF has also been postulated in the etiology and pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as they relate to the dysfunction of CRF neurons in the central nervous system [for review see E. B. De Souza,
Hosp. Practice
23:59 (1988)].
In affective disorder, or major depression, the concentration of CRF is significantly increased in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) of drug-free individuals [C. B. Nemeroff et al.,
Science
226:1342 (1984); C. M. Banki et al.,
Am. J. Psychiatry
144:873 (1987); R. D. France et al.,
Biol. Psychiatry
28:86 (1988); M. Arato et al.,
Biol Psychiatry
25:355 (1989)]. Furthermore, the density of CRF receptors is significantly decreased in the frontal cortex of suicide victims, consistent with a hypersecretion of CRF [C. B. Nemeroff et al.,
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
45:577 (1988)]. In addition, there is a blunted adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to CRF (i.v. administered) observed in depressed patients [P. W. Gold et al.,
Am J. Psychiatry
141:619 (1984); F. Holsboer et al.,
Psychoneuroendocrinology
9:147 (1984); P. W. Gold et al.,
New Eng. J. Med.
314:1129 (1986)]. Preclinical studies in rats and non-human primates provide additional support for the hypothesis that hypersecretion of CRF may be involved in the symptoms seen in human depression [R. M. Sapolsky,
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
46:1047 (1989)]. There is preliminary evidence that tricyclic antidepressants can alter CRF levels and thus modulate the numbers of CRF receptors in brain [Grigoriadis et al.,
Neuropsychopharmacology
2:53 (1989)].
There has also been a role postulated for CRF in the etiology of anxiety-related disorders. CRF produces anxiogenic effects in animals and interactions between benzodiazepine
on-benzodiazepine anxiolytics and CRF have been demonstrated in a variety of behavioral anxiety models [D. R. Britton et al.,
Life Sci.
31:363 (1982); C. W. Berridge and A. J. Dunn
Regul. Peptides
16:83 (1986)]. Preliminary studies using the putative CRF receptor antagonist a-helical ovine CRF (9-41) in a variety of behavioral paradigms demonstrate that the antagonist produces “anxiolytic-like” effects that are qualitatively similar to the benzodiazepines [C. W. Berridge and A. J. Dunn
Horm. Behav.
21:393 (1987),
Brain Research Reviews
15:71 (1990)]. Neurochemical, endocrine and receptor binding studies have all demonstrated interactions between CRF and benzodiazepine anxiolytics providing further evidence for the involvement of CRF in these disorders. Chlordiazepoxide attenuates the “anxiogenic” effects of CRF in both the conflict test [K. T. Britton et al.,
Psychopharmacology
86:170 (1985); K. T. Britton et al.,
Psychopharmacology
94:306 (1988)] and in the acoustic startle test [N. R. Swerdlow et al.,
Psychopharmacology
88:147 (1986)] in rats. The benzodiazepine receptor antagonist (Ro15-1788), which was without behavioral activity alone in the operant conflict test, reversed the effects of CRF in a dose-dependent manner while the benzodiazepine inverse agonist (FG7142) enhanced the actions of CRF [K. T. Britton et al.,
Psychopharmacology
94:306 (1988)].
The mechanisms and sites of action through which the standard anxiolytics and antidepressants produce their therapeutic effects remain to be elucidated. It has been hypothesized however, that they are involved in the suppression of the CRF hypersecretion that is observed in these disorders. Of particular interest is that preliminary studies examining the effects of a CRF receptor antagonist (&agr;-helical CRF
9-41
) in a variety of behavioral paradigms have demonstrated that the CRF antagonist produces “anxiolytic-like” effects qualitatively similar to the benzodiazepines [for review see G. F. Koob and K. T. Britton, In:
Corticotropin
-
Releasing Factor: Basic and Clinical Studies of a Neuropeptide,
E. B. De Souza and C. B. Nemeroff eds., CRC Press p221 (1990)].
Several publications describe corticotropin releasing factor antagonist compounds and their use to treat psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases. Examples of such publications include DuPont Merck PCT application US94/11050, Pfizer WO 95/33750, Pfizer WO 95/34563, Pfizer WO 95/33727 and Pfizer EP 0778 277 A1.
Insofar as is known, [1,5-a]-pyrazolo-1,3,5-triazines, [1,5-a]-1,2,3-triazolo-1,3,5-triazines, [1,5-a]-pyrazolo-pyrimidines and [1,5-a]-1,2,3-triazolo-pyrimidines, have not been previously reported as corticotropin releasing factor antagonist compounds useful in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and neurological diseases. However, there have been publications which teach some of these compounds for other uses.
For instance, EP 0 269 859 (Qstuka, 1988) discloses pyrazolotriazine compounds of the formula
where R
1
is OH or alkanoyl, R
2
is H, OH, or SH, and R
3
is an unsaturated heterocyclic group, naphthyl or substituted phenyl, and states that the compounds have xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and are useful for treatment of gout.
EP 0 594 149 (Ostuka, 1994) discloses pyrazolotriazine and pyrazolopyrimidine compounds of the formula
where A is CH or N, R
0
and R
3
are H or alkyl, and R
1
and R
2
are H, alkyl, alkoxyl, alkylthio, nitro, etc., and states that the compounds inhibit androgen and are useful in treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostatic carcinoma.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,910,907 (ICI, 1975) discloses pyrazolotriazines of the formula:
where R1 is CH
3
, C
2
H
5
or C
6
H
5
, X is H, C
6
H
5
, m-CH
3
C
6
H
4
, CN, COOEt, Cl, I or Br, Y is H, C
6
H
5
, o-CH
3
C
6
H
4
, or p-CH
3
C
6
H
4
, and Z is OH, H, CH
3
, C
2
H
5
, C
6
H
5
, n-C
3
H
7
, i-C
3
H
7
, SH, SCH
3
, NHC
4
H
9
, or N(C
2
H
5
)
2
, and states that the compounds are c-AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors useful as bronchodilators.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,995,039 discloses pyrazolotriazines of the formula:
where R
1
is H or alkyl, R
2
is H or alkyl, R
3
is H,

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